Pig 2~20mg/kg, broiler 86~132mg/kg.
Supplementary manganese monoxide for broilers is particularly important, because the basic feed of corn and soybean meal lacks Mn, unless supplementary inorganic sources or manganese-rich feed. The concentration of manganese in cereals and their by-products varies greatly (1987 Mertz). The manganese content of corn is very low (4-5 ppm). Soybean flour contains 27-46 ppm (1984 NRC) depending on the processing method. NRC (1984) recommends 60 ppm Mn for 6-week-old growing chickens, which also means that although there are many feed ingredients containing a considerable amount of Mn, the ingredients of the ingredients may interfere with their absorption (1986a Halpin and Baker ).
The relative bioavailability of the Mn source depends on the chemical type of manganese. The composition of feed grade manganese oxide has also been found to be different (1971 Watson). The correlation between high feed manganese levels and manganese absorption in several tissues, It was used as a research to measure the effectiveness of Mn source (1983b Southern and Baker; 1984a Black). These studies indicate that the Mn absorption in the reaction feed manganese tissue is linear and provides a method for determining the relative bioavailability of the manganese source. For the following studies, using tissue Mn absorption as a reaction criterion, the relative bioavailability of inorganic sources was estimated compared with the test-grade non-toxic, high-feed manganese level of MnSO4.
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